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The Complete Reference to the 8088 and 8086 Microprocessors: Programming, Interfacing, Software, Hardware, and Applications with Examples and Exercises


The 8088 And 8086 Microprocessors Programming Interfacing Software Hardware And Applications 4t




If you are interested in learning about the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors, their programming, interfacing, software, hardware, and applications, then this article is for you. In this article, we will provide an overview of these microprocessors, their features, their architectures, and their uses in various domains. We will also discuss some of the books that cover these topics in depth and provide practical examples and exercises.




The 8088 And 8086 Microprocessors Programming Interfacing Software Hardware And Applications 4t



What are the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors?




The 8088 and 8086 microprocessors are two of the earliest members of the Intel x86 family of microprocessors. They were introduced in the late 1970s and early 1980s as low-cost alternatives to the more powerful 16-bit microprocessors at that time. The 8088 and 8086 microprocessors have a lot in common: they both have a 16-bit data bus, a 20-bit address bus, an instruction set that is largely compatible, and a similar internal architecture. However, they also have some differences: the 8088 has an 8-bit external data bus, while the 8086 has a 16-bit external data bus; the 8088 can access up to 1 MB of memory, while the 8086 can access up to 16 MB of memory; and the 8088 has a lower clock speed than the 8086.


What are the features of the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors?




Some of the features of the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors are:


  • They are based on a complex instruction set computer (CISC) architecture, which means they have a large number of instructions that can perform complex operations on data.



  • They support both binary and decimal arithmetic operations, as well as logical and bit manipulation operations.



  • They have four general-purpose registers (AX, BX, CX, DX) that can be used for data manipulation and addressing.



  • They have four segment registers (CS, DS, SS, ES) that can be used to define different segments of memory for code, data, stack, and extra data.



  • They have two index registers (SI, DI) and two pointer registers (BP, SP) that can be used for addressing arrays and stacks.



  • They have a flag register (FLAGS) that contains various status bits that indicate the result of an operation or the state of the processor.



  • They have an instruction pointer register (IP) that points to the next instruction to be executed.



  • They support two modes of operation: minimum mode and maximum mode. In minimum mode, only one processor is used in a system; in maximum mode, multiple processors can be used in a system with a bus controller.



  • They support interrupt-driven input/output (I/O) operations, which means they can respond to external signals that request service from the processor.



  • They support direct memory access (DMA) operations, which means they can transfer data between memory and I/O devices without involving the processor.



What are the architectures of the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors?




The architectures of the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors consist of two main components: the execution unit (EU) and the bus interface unit (BIU). The execution unit is responsible for executing instructions and performing arithmetic and logical operations on data. The bus interface unit is responsible for fetching instructions from memory, accessing data from memory or I/O devices, and generating control signals for memory and I/O devices. The EU and BIU communicate with each other through an internal bi-directional bus called EU-BIU interface.


The EU consists of several subunits: an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), a control unit (CU), a flag logic unit (FLU), a register array (RA), an instruction queue (IQ), and an instruction decoder (ID). The ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations on data; the CU generates control signals for the ALU and other subunits; the FLU updates the flag register based on the result of an operation; the RA contains all the registers mentioned above; the IQ stores up to six bytes of prefetched instructions; and the ID decodes instructions into micro-operations for execution by the ALU.


The BIU consists of several subunits: a segment unit (SU), an address adder (AA), an instruction fetcher (IF), a bus controller (BC), a pin driver/receiver (PDR), and a temporary register (TR). The SU generates physical addresses from segment registers and offset values; the AA adds offset values to physical addresses; the IF fetches instructions from memory or I/O devices; the BC generates control signals for memory or I/O devices; the PDR drives or receives signals on external pins; and


the TR stores temporary data during DMA or interrupt operations.


What are the applications of the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors?




The 8088 and 8086 microprocessors have been widely used in various applications such as personal computers, embedded systems, industrial control systems, communication systems, scientific instruments, educational kits, etc. Some of the most notable examples are:


The IBM PC: The original IBM PC used an Intel 8088 microprocessor running at 4.77 MHz as its central processing unit (CPU). The IBM PC was one of the first mass-produced personal computers that popularized


  • the use of microprocessors in home and office environments.



The IBM PC/XT: The IBM PC/XT was an enhanced version of the IBM PC that used an Intel 8088 microprocessor running at 4.77 MHz or 8 MHz as its CPU. The IBM PC/XT had more memory capacity,


  • a hard disk drive, a serial port, a parallel port, etc.



The IBM PC/AT: The IBM PC/AT was an advanced version of the IBM PC/XT that used an Intel 80286 microprocessor running at 6 MHz or 8 MHz as its CPU. The IBM PC/AT had more memory capacity,


  • a faster hard disk drive, a keyboard controller chip, etc.



The Multibus: The Multibus was a standard bus architecture developed by Intel for connecting multiple processors and peripheral devices. The Multibus supported both minimum mode


  • and maximum mode operation of the Intel x86 family of microprocessors.



The MCS-86 System Design Kit: The MCS-86 System Design Kit was a development kit provided by Intel for designing systems based on


the Intel x86 family of microprocessors. The kit included hardware components such as an emulator board,


a monitor board,


a prototyping board,


a power supply,


etc., as well as software tools such as an assembler,


a linker,


a debugger,


  • etc.



What are some books that cover these topics in depth?




If you want to learn more about these topics in depth,


you may want to check out some books that cover them in detail.


Some examples are:


The 8088 And 8086 Microprocessors Programming Interfacing Software Hardware And Applications by Walter A. Triebel


and Avtar Singh: This book provides thorough,


balanced,


and practical coverage


of both software


and hardware topics related


to these microprocessors.


It develops basic concepts using


the


8088


and


8086


microprocessors,


but also discusses


the


32-bit version


of


the


80x86 family.


It examines how


to assemble,


run,


and debug programs,


and how


to build,


test,


and troubleshoot interface circuits.


It provides detailed coverage


of floating-point processing


and


the single instruction multiple data (SIMD) processing capability


of


the advanced Pentium processor.


It includes added material on number systems,


logic functions


and operations,


conversion between number systems,


and addition/subtraction


of binary numbers.


It includes new advanced material such as floating Point Architecture


and Instructions,


Multimedia (MMX) Architecture


and Instructions,


and


the hardware


and hardware architecture


of


the Pentium III


and Pentium IV processors.


It covers


the Intel architecture microprocessor families:


8088,


8086,


80286,


80386,


80486,


and


the latest Pentium processors.


It illustrates commands


of


the DEBUG program


and how


to assemble,


disassemble,


load,


save,


execute,


and debug programs on


the IBM PC.


It introduces


the contents


of


the


8088's instruction set.


It explores practical implementation techniques,


covering


the use


of latches,


transceivers,


buffers,


and programmable logic devices in


the memory


and I/O interfaces


of


the microcomputer system.


It is a valuable handbook for self-study in learning microprocessors,


for electrical engineers,


electronic technicians


How to interface the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors?




Interfacing the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors means connecting them to various peripheral devices such as memory, input/output (I/O) devices, interrupt controllers, timers, etc. Interfacing requires a knowledge of the processor control signals, the memory and I/O address spaces, the memory and I/O interfacing techniques, and the programmable logic devices that can be used to implement the interfacing circuits.


The processor control signals are the signals that are generated by or received by the processor to control or communicate with other devices. Some of the processor control signals are: ALE (address latch enable), DT/R (data transmit/receive), DEN (data enable), INTA (interrupt acknowledge), RD (read), WR (write), etc.


The memory and I/O address spaces are the ranges of addresses that can be accessed by the processor to read or write data from or to memory or I/O devices. The 8088 and 8086 microprocessors have a 20-bit address bus that can access up to 1 MB of memory and 64 KB of I/O devices. The memory address space is divided into four segments: code segment, data segment, stack segment, and extra segment. The I/O address space is divided into two types: port-mapped I/O and memory-mapped I/O.


The memory and I/O interfacing techniques are the methods that can be used to connect memory or I/O devices to the processor. Some of the memory and I/O interfacing techniques are: direct addressing, indirect addressing, base plus offset addressing, base plus index addressing, base plus index plus offset addressing, etc.


The programmable logic devices are the devices that can be used to implement the logic functions that are required for interfacing. Some of the programmable logic devices are: latches, transceivers, buffers, decoders, multiplexers, demultiplexers, etc.


How to design software for the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors?




Designing software for the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors means developing programs that can run on these processors and perform various tasks. Designing software requires a knowledge of the instruction set, the addressing modes, the assembler directives, the macro instructions, the debugging tools, and the software development cycle.


The instruction set is the set of instructions that can be executed by the processor. The instructions can be classified into various categories such as data transfer instructions, arithmetic instructions, logical instructions, shift and rotate instructions, branch instructions, loop instructions, string instructions, etc.


The addressing modes are the ways that can be used to specify the operands of an instruction. The operands can be registers, memory locations, immediate values, or labels. Some of the addressing modes are: register addressing mode,


immediate addressing mode,


direct addressing mode,


register indirect addressing mode,


indexed addressing mode,


based addressing mode,


based indexed addressing mode,


relative addressing mode,


etc.


The assembler directives are the commands that can be used to control


Conclusion




In this article, we have learned about the 8088 and 8086 microprocessors, their programming, interfacing, software, hardware, and applications. We have seen that these microprocessors are the predecessors of the modern Intel x86 family of microprocessors that are widely used in personal computers and other devices. We have also seen that these microprocessors have a complex instruction set computer (CISC) architecture, a 16-bit data bus, a 20-bit address bus, and various registers and control signals. We have also explored some of the books that cover these topics in depth and provide practical examples and exercises.


We hope that this article has given you a good overview of these microprocessors and has sparked your interest in learning more about them. If you want to dive deeper into these topics, you can check out some of the books mentioned in this article or look for other online resources. You can also try to write your own programs and interface circuits using these microprocessors and see how they work. Happy learning! 4e3182286b


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