POM QM V3 For Windows Gravitation Accelara
Moderate-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectra of Mars have been widely used in studies of the Martian surface because many candidate surface materials have distinctive absorption features at these wavelengths. Recent advances in NIR detector technology and instrumentation have also encouraged studies in this spectral region. The use of moderate spectral resolution has often been justified for NIR surface observations because the spectral features produced by most surface materials are relatively broad, and easily discriminated at this resolution. In spite of this, NIR spectra of Mars are usually very difficult to interpret quantitatively. One problem is that NIR surface absorption features are often only a few percent deep, requiring observations with great signal-to-noise ratios. A more significant problem is that gases in the Martian atmosphere contribute numerous absorption features at these wavelengths. Ground-based observers must also contend with variable absorption by several gases in the Earth's atmosphere (H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CH4, O2). The strong CO2 bands near 1.4, 1.6, 2.0, 2.7, 4.3, and 4.8 micrometers largely preclude the analysis of surface spectral features at these wavelengths. Martian atmospheric water vapor also contributes significant absorption near 1.33, 1.88, and 2.7 micrometers, but water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere poses a much larger problem to ground-based studies of these spectral regions. The third most important NIR absorber in the Martian atmosphere is CO. This gas absorbs most strongly in the relatively-transparent spectral windows near 4.6 and 2.3 micrometers. It also produces 1-10 percent absorption in the solar spectrum at these NIR wavelengths. This solar CO absorption cannot be adequately removed by dividing the Martian spectrum by that of a star, as is commonly done to calibrate ground-based spectroscopic observations, because most stars do not have identical amounts of CO absorption in their spectra. Here, we describe tow
POM QM V3 For Windows gravitation accelara
Thin-film spectra of solid NH3 at a resolution of 1 per cm were used to determine its absorption coefficient over the range 50-7000 per cm. The thin films were formed inside a liquid N2 cooled dewar using a variety of substrates and dewar windows. The spectra were recorded with two Fourier spectrometers, one covering the range from 1 to 4 microns and the other from 2.6 to 200 microns. The thickness of the films was measured with a laser interference technique. The absorption coefficients were determined by application of Lambert's law and by a fitting procedure to the observed spectra using thin-film theory. Good agreement was found with the absorption coefficients recently determined by other investigators over a more restricted wavelength range. A metastable phase was observed near a temperature of 90 K and its absorption coefficient is reported. No other major spectral changes with temperature were noted for the range 88-120 K.
The water vapor continuum absorption spectrum was investigated using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. The transmission of broadband terahertz radiation from 0.300 to 1.500 THz was recorded for multiple path lengths and relative humidity levels. The absorption coefficient as a function of frequency was determined and compared with theoretical predictions and available water vapor absorption data. The prediction code is able to separately model the different parts of atmospheric absorption for a range of experimental conditions. A variety of conditions were accurately modeled using this code including both self and foreign gas broadening for low and high water vapor pressures for many different measurement techniques. The intensity and location of the observed absorption lines were also in good agreement with spectral databases. However, there was a discrepancy between the resonant line spectrum simulation and the observed absorption spectrum in the atmospheric transmission windows caused by the continuum absorption. A small discrepancy remained even after using the best available data from the literature to account for the continuum absorption. From the experimental and resonant line simulation spectra the air-broadening continuum parameter was calculated and compared with values available in the literature.
Present operational schemes for infrared remote sounding measurements of surface temperature use the 899 wavelengths/cm atmospheric window region. Spectra from the Nimbus 4 IRIS in the 750 to 1250 wavelengths/cm region are analyzed. Comparison of the actual surface temperature and the observed brightness temperature at 10 wavelengths/cm resolution shows that the clearest windows were at 936 and 960 wavelengths/cm. Although there is a small amount of CO2 absorption in these regions, this is compensated for by a decrease in water vapor continuum absorption. Atmospheric absorption was 0.5 K less than experienced by the 899 wavelengths/cm window.
A reference point method has been developed to correct infrared spectra from the moon and other celestial objects for selective absorption in the earth's atmosphere. The method is applied to lunar spectra that were obtained 2.3 km above sea level within the two atmospheric IR windows. The results indicate that SiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) are major mineral constituents in the four large surface areas analyzed in agreement with the localized probings at spacecraft landing sites. In addition, IR spectra from Martian dust clouds that were observed from the Mariner 9 spacecraft are examined. The principal sources of radiation in this case appear to be Al(2)O(3) and sulfur.
Rosetta, the Solar System cornerstone mission of ESA's Horizon 2000 programme, consists of an orbiter and a lander, and is due to arrive at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in May 2014. Following its 2004 launch, Rosetta carried out a series of planetary fly-bys and gravitational assists. On these close fly-bys of the Earth, measurements were taken by the Visible Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS). Analysis of these spectra and comparison with spectra acquired by Earth-observing satellites can support the verification of the inflight calibration of Rosetta/VIRTIS. In this paper, measurements taken by VIRTIS in November 2009 are compared with suitable coincident data from Earth-observing instruments (ESA-ENVISAT/AATSR and SCIAMACHY, and EOS-TERRA/MODIS). Radiative transfer simulations using NEMESIS (Irwin et al., 2008) are fit to the fly-by data taken by VIRTIS, using representative atmospheric and surface parameters. VIRTIS measurements correlate 90% with AATSR's, 85-94% with MODIS, and 82-88% with SCIAMACHYs. The VIRTIS spectra are reproducible in the 1-5 μm region, except in the 1.4 μm deep water vapour spectral absorption band in the near-infrared in cases in which the radiance is very low (cloud-free topographies), where VIRTIS consistently registers more radiance than do MODIS and SCIAMACHY. Over these cloud-free regions, VIRTIS registers radiances a factor of 3-10 larger than SCIAMACHY and of 3-8 greater than MODIS. It is speculated that this discrepancy could be due to a spectral light leak originating from reflections from the order-sorting filters above the detector around 1.4 μm.